E. Frankland, Ann. 126, 109 (1863); E. Frankland, B. F. Duppa, Ann. 135, 25 (1865).

Formation of α-hydroxycarboxylic esters by reaction of dialkyl oxalates with alkyl halides in the presence of zinc, or amalgamated zinc, and acid:

E. Krause, A. von Grosse, Die Chemie der metallorganischen Verbindungen (Berlin, 1937) p 225; K. Nützel, Houben-Weyl 13/2a, 741 (1973).