A. W. Hofmann, Ber. 16, 558 (1883); 18, 5, 109 (1885); K. Löffler, C. Freytag, ibid. 42, 3427 (1909).

Formation of pyrrolidines or piperidines by thermal or photochemical decomposition of protonated N-haloamines:

M. E. Wolff, Chem. Rev. 63, 55 (1963); E. J. Corey, W. R. Hertler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82, 1657 (1960); R. Furstoss et al., Tetrahedron Letters 1970, 1263; S. Titouani et al., Tetrahedron 36, 2961 (1980).