S. Gabriel, Ber. 20, 2224 (1887).

Conversion of alkyl halides to primary amines by treatment with potassium phthalimide and subsequent hydrolysis:

M. S. Gibson, R. W. Bradshaw, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 7, 919 (1968); B. Dietrich et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 1282 (1981); O. Mitsunobu, Comp. Org. Syn. 6, 79-85 (1991). Modified conditions: S. E. Sen, S. L. Roach, Synthesis 1994, 756; M. N. Khan, J. Org. Chem. 61, 8063 (1996). Stereoselectivity: A. Kubo et al., Tetrahedron Letters 37, 4957 (1996).