P. Fritsch, Ann. 279, 319 (1894); W. P. Buttenberg, ibid. 327; H. Wiechell, ibid. 332.

Carbene-mediated rearrangement of 1,1-diaryl-2-haloethylenes to diaryl acetylenes:

G. Köbrich, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 4, 49 (1965); G. Köbrich, P. Buck in Acetylenes, H. G. Viehe, Ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1969) pp 117, 131; G. Köbrich, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 11, 473 (1972); P. J. Stang, D. P. Fox, J. Org. Chem. 43, 364 (1978). Synthetic applications: V. Mouriès et al., Synthesis 1998, 271; I. Creton et al., Tetrahedron Letters 40, 1899 (1999). Substituent effects: T. Kawase et al., Chem. Letters 1995, 499; H. Rezaei et al., Org. Letters 2, 419 (2000).